THE OLFACTORY ORGAN OF TORPEDO MARMORATA RISSO, 1810: MORPHOLOGY, HISTOLOGY, AND NOS-LIKE IMMUNOREACTIVITY

Sara Ferrando, Andrea Amaroli, Lorenzo Gallus, Stefano Aicardi, Davide Di Blasi, Marino Vacchi, Laura Ghigliotti

Abstract


The olfactory organ of Chondrichthyes is characterized by a central raphe and several lamellae covered by the sensory olfactory epithelium; usually the lamellae have secondary folds on their surface. It is an overall complex shape and very variable among the species of this vertebrate class. The sensory olfactory epithelium, in turns, has a general organization which is conserved across species. We here describe for the first time the morphology and histology of the olfactory organ of a juvenile male of marbled electric ray Torpedo marmorata. It is constituted by an elongated raphe and 37 primary lamellae. As the lamellar number does not change ontogenetically and as a little variability among individuals, the number 37 is likely to be indicative as the lamellar number of the species, and it is the smaller to date reported in the order of Torpediniformes. NOS1-like immunoreactivity allowed to observe a basal cell population possibly involved in immune defense or in the regulation of cell renewal.


Keywords


Electric ray, nitric oxide, olfactory epithelium, olfactory rosette

Full Text:

PDF

References


Andreakis N., D’Aniello S., Albalat R., Patti F.P., Garcia-Fernàndez J., Procaccini G., Sordino P. & Palumbo A., 2011. Evolution of the nitric oxide synthase family in metazoans. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28(1): 163-179.

Dellacorte D., Kalinoski D.L., Huque T., Wysocki L. & Restrepo D. 1995. NADPH diaphorase staining suggests localization of nitric oxide synthase within mature vertebrate olfactory neurons. Neuroscience 66(1): 215-225.

Dong X., Fu Q., Liu S., Gao C., Su B., Tan F. & Li C., 2016. The expression signatures of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) mucosal surfaces against bacterial challenge. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 59: 406-413.

Ferrando S., Gallus L., Gambardella C., Ghigliotti L., Ravera S., Vallarino M., Vacchi M. & Tagliafierro G., 2010. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium of the shark Scyliorhinus canicula. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 40: 293-300.

Ferrando S., Gallus L., Gambardella C., Amaroli A., Cutolo A., Masini M.A., Vallarino M. & Vacchi M., 2012. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity in the olfactory system of a cartilaginous fish. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 43: 133-140.

Ferrando S., Gallus L., Ghigliotti L., Amaroli A., Abbas G. & Vacchi M., 2017a. Clarification of the terminology of the olfactory lamellae in Chondrichthyes. Anatomical Record 300: 2039-2045.

Ferrando S., Gallus L., Amaroli A., Gambardella C., Waryani B., Di Blasi D. & Vacchi M., 2017b. Gross anatomy and histology of the olfactory rosette of the shark Heptranchias perlo. Zoology 122: 27-37.

Ferrando S., Amaroli A., Gallus L., Aicardi S., Di Blasi D., Christiansen J.S., Vacchi M. & Ghigliotti L. Secondary folds contribute significantly to the total surface area in the olfactory organ of Chondrichthyes. Submitted.

Firestein S., 2001. How the olfactory system makes sense of scents. Nature 413: 211-218.

Gibbs S.M., 2002. Regulation of neuronal proliferation and differentiation by nitric oxide. Molecular Neurobiology 27(2): 107-120.

Howard L.E., Holmes W.M., Ferrando S., Maclaine J.S., Kelsh R.N., Ramsey A., Abel, R.L. & Cox, J.P.L., 2013. Functional nasal morphology of chimaeroid fishes. Journal of Morphology 274: 987–1009.

Holl A., 1973. Functional morphology of the nasal organ of Chimaera monstrosa (Holocephali). Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere 74: 271–296.

Meng Q. & Yin M., 1981a. A study of the olfactory organ of the sharks. Transactions of the Chinese Ichthyological Society 2: 1–24.

Meredith T.L. & Kajiura S.M., 2010. Olfactory morphology and physiology of elasmobranchs. Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 3449-3456.

McGann J.P., 2017. Poor human olfaction is a 19th-century myth. Science 356(6338): eaam7263.

Rueden C.T., Schindelin J., Hiner M.C., DeZonia B.E., Walter A.E., Arena E.T. & Eliceiri K.W., 2017. ImageJ2: ImageJ for the next generation of scientific image data. BMC Bioinformatics 18: 529. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859-017-1934-z

Sànchez-Islas E. & León-Olea M., 2001. Histochemical and immunohistochemical localization of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the olfactory epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum. Nitric Oxide 5(4): 302-316.

Schluessel V., Bennett M.B., Bleckmann H., Blomberg S. & Collin S.P., 2008. Morphometric and ultrastructural comparison of the olfactory system in elasmobranchs: the significance of structure-function relationships based on phylogeny and ecology. Journal of Morphology 269: 1365-1386.

Schwob J.E., Jang W., Holbrook E.H., Lin B., Herrick D.B., Peterson J.N. & Coleman J.H., 2017. Stem and progenitor cells of the mammalian olfactory epithelium: taking poietic license. The Journal of Comparative Neurology 525(4): 1034-1054.

Theiss S.M., Hart N.S. & Collin S.P., 2009. Morphological indicators of olfactory capability in wobbegong sharks (Orectolobidae, Elasmobranchii). Brain Behavior and Evolution 73:91–101.

Zielinski B. & Hara T.J., 2006. Olfaction. Fish Physiology 25: 1-43.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15167/2612-2960/BELS2019.1.1.1064

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 BELS - Bulletin of Enviromental and Life Sciences

This journal is hosted by sezione Riviste of GUP - P.za della Nunziata 6, 1st floor - 16124 Genova - Italy