Models of masculinity in Incel and Red Pill online groups: narrative of self?victimization, dehumanization and violence against women


  • Annalisa Dordoni Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca
  • Sveva Magaraggia Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca



Online groups that share violent language and hate speech against women have been spreading and multiplying. Incel and Red Pill groups are part of the manosphere and are active and increasing in Italy too. The aim of the study upon which this article is based, and whose preliminary results are presented here, is to analyse interactions, representations and discourses connected to gender identities and models of masculinity, presented and co-produced within the Incel and Red Pill Italian community. Through the analysis of empirical material, web articles, posts and comments on closed groups active on social media, we identified two interconnected themes: (1) aesthetics, frustration and a narrative of self?victimization; (2) reification, dehumanization and violence against women. The results show that violence is immanent and integrated into the lexicon and imaginary used by this virtual community, and is at the core of the new models of masculinity produced and reinforced by these groups.

Keywords: gender models, masculinity, incel, red pill, violence.