THE ESSENTIAL ROLE OF DIVING IN MARINE BIOLOGY

Autori

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15167/2612-2960/BELS2021.3.1.1279

Parole chiave:

History, scientific diving, marine biology, perspectives

Abstract

Since the end of the Second World War, scuba diving has given new perspectives to marine sciences and, in particular, to marine biology. Before the advent of diving, our knowledge about biology, ecology and behavior of subtidal organisms and the structure and dynamics of hard bottom communities were very superficial. Diving enabled marine scientists to collect biological and geological samples, observe organisms and their behavior directly in situ, study species interactions, and evaluate the marine communities’ structures and dynamics. This method has helped to refine the distribution maps of many species and coastal communities. Moreover, scientific diving became an essential tool to explore environments challenging to reach otherwise, as submarine caves. Thanks to non-destructive methods, scientific diving became essential in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and, more in general, in field studies promoting conservation purposes. Other opportunities regarded the use of underwater devices as benthic chambers, landers, photo- and cinematographic time-lapse systems, or in situ experimental manipulations aiming at testing scientific hypotheses. The direct access to the underwater habitats determined a scientific revolution, by allowing a considerable advancement of the knowledge about the marine world and constituting an approach that no instrument operated by the surface could ever match. Scientific diving assumed an importance comparable to that of the electron microscope in cell biology, and today it is a standard tool in many marine biological research activities. This work aimed to summarize the history of scientific diving and show its role in the development of marine biology and its importance in opening unexpected horizons in science.

Riferimenti bibliografici

AA.VV., 1959. Ergebnisse der Osterreichischen Tyrrhenia Expedition, 1952. Pubblicazioni Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 30 (suppl.): 1–787.

Aleem A.A., 1956. Quantitative underwater study of benthic communities inhabiting kelp beds off California. Science 123 (3188): 183–183.

Alldredge A.L. & King J.M., 1977. Distribution, abundance, and substrate preferences of demersal reef zooplankton at Lizard Island Lagoon, Great Barrier Reef. Marine Biology 41 (4): 317–333.

Augier H., Eugene C., Harmand-Desforges J.M. & Sougy A., 1996. Posidonia oceanica re–implantation technology of the marine gardeners is now operational on a large scale. Ocean & Coastal Management 30(2–3): 297–307.

Azzurro E., Pais A., Consoli P. & Andaloro F., 2007. Evaluating day-night changes in shallow Mediterranean rocky reef fish assemblages by visual census. Marine Biology 151 (6): 2245–2253.

Bacci T., La Porta B., Maggi C., Nonnis O., Paganelli D., Sante Rende F., Targus M., Boccalaro F., Bovina G., Cantasano N. & Polifrone M., 2014. Conservazione e gestione della naturalità negli ecosistemi marino-costieri. Il trapianto delle praterie di Posidonia oceanica. Manuali e linee guida, 106. ISPRA, Rome.

Bainbridge R., 1952. Underwater observations on the swimming of marine zooplankton. Journal Marine Biological Association of United Kingdom 31: 107–112.

Bakran-Petricioli T., Kipson S. & Petricioli D., 2019. Transplantation of endangered Mediterranean habitat-forming bivalve Pinna nobilis as a prescribed conservation measure, a case study. 6th Mediterranean Symposium on Marine Vegetation (Antalya, Turkey, 14–15 January 2019). Langar H., Ouerghi A. (Eds), SPA/RAC publ., Tunis.

Bakus G.J., 2007. Quantitative analysis of marine biological communities. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.

Balduzzi A., Bianchi C.N., Boero F., Cattaneo-Vietti R., Pansini M. & Sarà M., 1989. The suspension–feeder communities of a Mediterranean Sea cave. In: Ros J.–D. (Ed.), Topics in Marine Biology. Scientia Marina 53: 387–395.

Balduzzi A., Boero F., Cattaneo R., Cicogna F., Pansini M., Pessani D. & Pronzato R., 1982. An approach to the study of the benthic fauna of some marine caves along the Peninsula Sorrentina (Naples, Italy). In: Blanchard I., Mair J., Morrison I. (Eds). Proceedings of the World Underwater Federation (CMAS). Natural Environmental Research Council: 176–182.

Balduzzi A., Boero F., Cattaneo R., Pansini M. & Pronzato R., 1983. Le ricerche subacquee del gruppo biologia marina dell’Istituto di Zoologia dell’Università di Genova. Proceedings 7th International Diving Science Symposium CMAS, Padoa: 79–86.

Balestri E., Piazzi L. & Cinelli F., 1998. Survival and growth of transplanted and natural seedlings of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile in a damaged coastal area. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 228 (2): 209–225.

Ballesteros E., 2006. Mediterranean coralligenous assemblages, a synthesis of present knowledge. Oceanography and Marine Biology, an annual review 44: 123–195.

Barbieri F., 2014. Cavità sommerse. L’immersione in caverne e grotte marine. Editrice La Mandragora, Imola.

Barnett P.R. & Hardy B.L., 1967. A diver–operated quantitative bottom sampler for sand macrofauna. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 15: 390–398.

Bastyan G.R. & Cambridge M.L., 2008. Transplantation as a method for restoring the seagrass Posidonia australis. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 79 (2): 289–299.

Bavestrello G., Cattaneo-Vietti R. & Cerrano C., 2001. Trapianto d’organismi bentonici nella ricostituzione di biocenosi danneggiate. In: Danovaro R. (Ed), Recupero ambientale, tecnologie, bioremediation e biotecnologie. 10. UTET Ed.

Bavestrello G., Cattaneo-Vietti R., Cerrano C., Danovaro R. & Fabiano M., 1995. Annual sedimentation of detritus rolling down a vertical cliff (Ligurian Sea, Italy), analysis of the contribution of the resuspension process. Journal Coastal Research 11 (3): 690–696.

Bavestrello G., Cattaneo-Vietti R., Danovaro R. & Fabiano M., 1991. Detritus rolling down along a vertical cliff of the Ligurian Sea (Italy), the ecological role in hard bottom communities. P.S.Z.N.I., Marine Ecology 12 (4): 281–292.

Beebe W., 1926. The Arcturus adventure, an account of the New York Zoological Society’s first oceanographic expedition. Putnam Ed., New York.

Beebe W., 1928. Beneath tropical seas. Putnam Ed., New York.

Benedetti-Cecchi L., Airoldi L., Abbiati M. & Cinelli F., 1996. Exploring the causes of spatial variation in an assemblage of benthic invertebrates from a submarine cave with sulphur springs. Journal of the Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 208: 153–168.

Bertolino M., Cattaneo-Vietti R., Costa G., Pansini M., Fraschetti S. & Bavestrello G., 2017a. Have climate changes driven the diversity of a Mediterranean coralligenous sponge assemblage on a millennial timescale? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 487: 355–363.

Bertolino M., Costa G., Carella M., Cattaneo-Vietti R., Cerrano C., Pansini M., Quarta G., Calcagnile L. & Bavestrello G., 2017b. The dynamics of a Mediterranean coralligenous sponge assemblage at decennial and millennial temporal scales. PlosS One 12 (5): e0177945.

Bertolino M., Costa G., Cattaneo-Vietti R., Pansini M., Quarta G., Calcagnile L. & Bavestrello G., 2019. Ancient and recent sponge assemblages from the Tyrrhenian coralligenous over millennia (Mediterranean Sea). Facies 65(3): 1–12.

Betti F., Bavestrello G., Fravega L., Bo M., Coppari M. et al., 2019. On the effects of recreational SCUBA diving on fragile benthic species: The Portofino MPA (NW Mediterranean Sea) case study. Ocean & Coastal Management 182: 104926.

Bianchi C.N., Ardizzone G.D., Belluscio A., Colantoni P., Diviacco G., Morri C. & Tunesi L., 2004. Benthic cartography. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 11 (1): 347–370.

Bianchi C.N., Morri C., Chiantore M., Montefalcone M., Parravicini V. & Rovere A., 2012a. Mediterranean Sea biodiversity between the legacy from the past and a future of change. In: Stambler N. (Ed.), Life in the Mediterranean Sea: A Look at Habitat Changes. Nova Science Publishers, USA. Chapter 1: 1–55.

Bianchi C.N., Parravicini V., Montefalcone M., Rovere A. & Morri C., 2012b. The challenge of managing marine biodiversity, a practical toolkit for a cartographic, territorial approach. Diversity 4: 419–452.

Bianchi C.N., Pronzato R., Cattaneo-Vietti R., Benedetti-Cecchi L., Morri C. et al., 2003. Cap. 6. I Fondi duri. In: Manuale di metodologie di campionamento e studio del benthos marino mediterraneo. Gambi M.C., Dappiano M. (Eds). Biologia Marina Mediterranea 10 (suppl.): 199–231.

Bibiloni M.A., Gili J.-M. & Ros J.-D., 1984. Les coves submarines de les illes Medes. In, J.-D. Ros, Olivella I., Gili J.-M. (Eds). Els sistemes naturals de les illes Medes. Institut d’Estudis Catalans, Barcelona: 707–737.

Boero F. & Fresi E., 1986. Zonation and evolution of a rocky bottom hydroid community. Marine Ecology 7 (2): 123–150.

Boero F., Cicogna, F., Pessani, D. & Pronzato R., 1991. In situ observations on contraction behavior and diel activity of Halcampoides purpurea var. mediterranea (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) in a marine cave. P.S.Z.N.I., Marine Ecology 12 (3): 185–192.

Bohnsack J.A., 1979. Photographic quantitative sampling of hard–bottom benthic communities. Bulletin Marine Science 29: 242–252.

Bolognari A. & Cavallaro G., 1969. Ispezione diretta del fondo marino per le indagini sulle biocenosi. Pubblicazioni Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 37 (suppl.): 134–136.

Boström C., Pittman S.J., Simenstad C. & Kneib R.T., 2011. Seascape ecology of coastal biogenic habitats, advances, gaps, and challenges. Marine Ecology Progress Series 427: 191–217.

Boström-Einarsson L., Babcock R.C., Bayraktarov E., Ceccarelli D., Cook N., Ferse S.C., Hancock B., Harrison P., Hein M., Shaver E., Smith A., Suggett D., Stewart-Sinclair P.J., Vardi T. & McLeod I.M., 2020. Coral restoration. A systematic review of current methods, successes, failures and future directions. Plos One 15(1): e0226631.

Boudouresque C.-F., 1971. Méthodes d’étude qualitative et quantitative du benthos (en particulier du phytobenthos). Téthys 3: 79–104.

Boury-Esnault N., Harmelin J.-G. & Vacelet J., 1993. Les abysses méditérranéennes à vingt mètres de profondeur? La recherche 24 (256) (suppl.): 848–851.

Boutan L., 1900. La photographie sous-marine et les progress de la photographie. Schleicher Fr., Paris.

Boyer M., 2014. La fotografia naturalistica subacquea. Tra tecnica, arte e scienza. Magenes Editoriale srl, Milano.

Brett C.E., 1964. A portable hydraulic diver operated dredge–sieve for sampling subtidal macrofauna. Journal Marine Research 22: 205–209.

Brewster D., 1813. Treatise of New Philosophical Instruments for Various purposes in the Arts and Sciences. John Murray & William Blackwood, Edinburgh & London.

Brock V.E., 1954. A preliminary report on a method of estimating reef fish populations. Journal of Wildlife Management 18: 297–308.

Brueggeman P., 2003. Diving under Antarctic ice, a history. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Technical Report, 41.

Brylske A., 1994. A Brief History of Diving, Free Divers, Bells and Helmets. Parts I and II. Dive Training Magazine.

Bussotti S., Terlizzi A., Fraschetti S., Belmonte G. & Boero F., 2006. Spatial and temporal variability of sessile benthos in shallow Mediterranean marine caves. Marine Ecology Progress Series 325: 109–119.

Cabanellas-Reboredo M., Vázquez–Luis M., Mourre B. et al., 2019. Tracking a mass mortality outbreak of pen shell Pinna nobilis populations, a collaborative effort of scientists and citizens. Scientific Reports 9: 13355.

Cánovas Molina A., Montefalcone M., Vassallo P., Morri C., Bianchi C.N. & Bavestrello G., 2016. Combining literature review, acoustic mapping and in situ observations: an overview of coralligenous assemblages in Liguria (NW Mediterranean Sea). Scientia Marina 80 (1): 7–16.

Cary L.R., 1918. The Gorgonacea as a factor in the formation of a coral reef. Carnegie Institute Washington Papers, Marine Biology 9: 341–362.

Cattaneo R. & Pastorino M.V., 1974. Popolamenti algali e fauna bentonica nelle cavità naturali della regione litorale mediterranea. Rassegna Speleologica Italiana 12: 272–281.

Cattaneo-Vietti R., Trainito E. & Doneddu M., 2015. Man and Shells. Molluscs in the History. Bentham e–Books Publ.

Cavarra G., 1998. La leggenda di Colapesce. Intilla Ed., Messina (Italy).

Cedrone D., 1998. Immersione. I secoli della scoperta. Antares Publ.

Cerrano C., Bavestrello G., Bianchi C.N., Cattaneo-Vietti R., Bava S., Morganti C., Morri C., Picco P., Sara G., Schiaparelli S., Siccardi A. & Sponga F., 2000. A catastrophic mass–mortality episode of gorgonians and other organisms in the Ligurian Sea (North–western Mediterranean), summer 1999. Ecology Letters 3: 284–293.

Cerrano C., Milanese M. & Ponti M., 2016. Diving for science - science for diving, volunteer scuba divers support science and conservation in the Mediterranean Sea. Aquatic Conservation, Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 27(2): 303–323.

Chevaldonné P. & Lejeusne C., 2003. Regional warming‐induced species shift in north‐west Mediterranean marine caves. Ecology Letters 6(4): 371–379.

Cicogna F. & Cattaneo-Vietti R. (Eds), 1993. Red coral in the Mediterranean Sea, Arts, History and Science. Ministero delle Risorse Agricole, Alimentari e Forestali, Rome.

Cicogna F. & Pronzato R., 1985. A time–lapse photography equipment for the investigation of macrozoobenthos survey. Rapports et proces–verbaux des reunion CIESM 29(6): 183.

Cicogna F., Bavestrello G. & Cattaneo-Vietti R. (Eds), 1999. Red Coral and other Octocorals Biology and Protection. Ministero per le Politiche Agricole, Rome.

Cicogna F., Bianchi C.N., Ferrari G. & Forti P. (Eds), 2003. Grotte marine, cinquant’anni di ricerca in Italia. Ministero dell’Ambiente e della tutela del Territorio, Rome.

Çinar M.E., Féral J.-P., Arvanitidis C., David R., Taskin E. Sini M., Dailianis T., Dogan A., Gerovasileiou V., et al., 2020. Coralligenous assemblages along their geographical distribution: Testing of concepts and implications for management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 30 (8): 1578–1594.

Cinelli F., 1980. La fanerogame marine, problemi di trapianto e di riforestazione. Memorie Biologia Marina Oceanografia 10 (suppl.): 17–25.

Cinelli F., Abbiati M., Bianchi C.N., Colantoni P., De Strobel F. & Acunto S., 2011. International School for scientific diving, 25 years of training courses for scientists and students. 3rd international Symposium on Occupational Scientific Diving. 9–12 November 2011. Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy.

Cinelli F., Gambi M.C., Fresi E. & Solaini P., 1981. La vita nel Mediterraneo, Enciclopedia fotografica a colori della fauna e della flora sottomarina. Casa Editrice La Cuba, Rome.

Colantoni P., 2007. L’immersione scientifica. Tecniche di indagine subacquea. La Mandragola Publ., Imola.

Colantoni P., Gallignani P., Fresi E. & Cinelli F., 1982. Patterns of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile beds around the Island of Ischia (Gulf of Naples) and in adjacent waters. P.S.Z.N.I., Marine Ecology 3 (1), 53–74.

Colladon L.T.F., 1821. Narrative of a descent in the diving–bell by Dr Louis Theodore Frederick Colladon of Geneva. Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 5: 8–15.

Conklin E.G., 1933. The use of the diving helmet in biological study. The Scientific Monthly 37 (4): 380–382.

Cooper G., 1976. Jardinier de la Mer. Association-Fondation G. Cooper, Cahier 1. 1–57.

Corriero G., Longo C., Mercurio M., Marzano C.N., Lembo G. & Spedicato M.T., 2004. Rearing performance of Spongia officinalis on suspended ropes off the Southern Italian Coast (Central Mediterranean Sea). Aquaculture 238 (1–4): 195–205.

Cottalorda J–M., Gratiot J., Mannoni P–A., Vaugelas J. de, Meinesz A., 2008. Suivi de l’invasion des algues introduites Caulerpa taxifolia et Caulerpa racemosa en Méditerranée, situation devant les côtes françaises au 31 décembre 2007. E.A. 4228 ECOMERS – Laboratoire Environnement Marin Littoral – Université de Nice–Sophia Antipolis Publ.

Dayton P.K., 1971. Competition, disturbance and community organization, the provision and subsequent utilization of space in a rocky intertidal community. Ecological Monographs 41: 351–389.

Dayton P.K., 1972. Experimental evaluation of ecological dominance in a rocky intertidal algal community. Ecological Monographs 45: 137–159.

Dayton P.K., 1985. Ecology of kelp communities. Annual Review of ecology and systematics 16 (1): 215–245.

Dayton P.K., Robilliard G.A., Paine R.T. & Dayton L.B., 1974. Biological accommodation in the benthic community at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Ecological Monographs 44: 105–128.

De’ Marchi F., 1599. Della Architettura militare del capitanio Francesco de’ Marchi... libri tre, Nelli quali si descrivono li veri modi del fortificare, che si usa a’ tempi moderni, Con un breve et utile trattato, nel quale si dimostrano li modi del fabricar l’artigliaria et la prattica di adoperarla, da quelli che hanno carico di essa. Brescia, Comino Presegni per Gaspare dall’Oglio.

Dimarchopoulou D., Gerovasileiou V. & Voultsiadou E., 2018. Spatial variability of sessile benthos in a semi–submerged marine cave of a remote Aegean Island (eastern Mediterranean Sea). Regional Studies in Marine Science 17: 102–111.

Dohrn A., 1880. Bericht ber die Zoologische Station wäbrend der jahre 1879 und 1880. Mitteilungen Zoologische Station Neapel 2: 495–514.

Done T., 1981. Photogrammetry in coral reef ecology, a technique for the study of change in coral communities. Proc. 4th International Coral Reef Symposium, Manila 2: 315–320.

Drach P., 1948. Premieres recherches en scaphandre autonome sur le peuplement des facies rocheau de la zone littorale profonde. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences, Paris 227: 1176–1178.

Duckworth A.R. & Wolff C., 2007. Bath sponge aquaculture in Torres Strait, Australia, effect of explant size, farming method and the environment on culture success. Aquaculture 271(1–4): 188–195.

Duckworth A.R., 2009. Farming sponges to supply bioactive metabolites and bath sponges a review. Marine Biotechnology 11 (6): 669–679.

Dumas P., Bertaud A., Peignon C., Leopold M. & Pelletier D., 2009. A “quick and clean” photographic method for the description of coral reef habitats. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 368 (2): 161–168.

Eliav J., 2015. Guglielmo’s secret, the enigma of the first diving bell used in underwater archaeology. International Journal for the History of Engineering Technology 85(1): 60–69.

Emig C.C. & Lienhart R., 1967. Un nouveau moyen de récolte pour les substrats meubles infralittoraux, l’aspirateur sous-marin. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume 58: 115–120.

Epiceno A. & Paggetti R., 2014. Una pagina dimenticata dell’esplorazione scientifica, Francesco Baschieri Salvadori e i madreporari della Spedizione Subacquea Nazionale nel Mar Rosso. Museologia Scientifica n.s. 8: 18–22.

Estes J.A. & Palmisano J.F., 1974. Sea otters, their role in structuring nearshore communities. Science 185(4156): 1058–1060.

Fadilah A., Collins K. & Peachey R., 2013. The role of volunteer divers in lionfish research and control in the Caribbean. In: Proceedings of the 2013 AAUS/ESDP Curaçao Joint International Scientific Diving Symposium. Lang M.A. & Sayer M.D.J. (Eds). October 24–27, 2013. Curaçao. Dauphin Island. American Academy of Underwater Sciences: 7–12.

Fedra K. & Machan R., 1979. A self-contained underwater time-lapse camera for in situ long-term observations. Marine Biology 55: 239–246.

Fol H., 1890. The experience of a diver. Popular Science, 38.

Forster G.R., 1954. Preliminary note on a survey of Stoke Point rocks with self–contained diving apparatus. Journal Marine Biological Association United Kingdom 33: 341–344.

Forster G.R., 1955. Underwater observations on rocks off Stoke Point and Dartmouth. Journal Marine Biological Association United Kingdom 34: 197–199.

Forster G.R., 1961. An underwater survey on the Lulworth Banks. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 41 (1): 157–160.

Fresi E., 1979. Attività subacquee ed il loro ruolo nella ricerca biologica marina. Atti Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, 86 (suppl.).

Fryer J.G. & Elfick M.H., 1981. An image splitter for underwater stereophotography. The Photogrammetric Record, 10 (57): 369–374.

Gaino E., Pansini M., Pronzato R. & Cicogna F., 1991. Morphological and structural variations in Clathrina clathrus (Porifera, Calcispongiae). In: Fossil and recent sponges. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg: 360–371.

Galil B.S., 2000. A sea under siege – alien species in the Mediterranean. Biological Invasions 2 (2):, 177–186.

Gatti G., Bianchi C.N., Parravicini V., Rovere A., Peirano A., Montefalcone M., Massa F. & Morri C., 2015. Ecological change, sliding baselines and the importance of historical data: lessons from combining observational and quantitative data on a temperate reef over 70 years. Plos One 10 (2): e0118581.

Gerovasileiou V., Chintiroglou C., Vafidis D., Koutsoubas D., Sini M., Dailiani T., Issaris Y., Akritopoulou E., Dimarchopolou D. & Voutsiadou E., 2015a. Census of biodiversity in marine caves of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Mediterranean Marine Science 16: 245–265.

Gerovasileiou V., Voultsiadou E., Issaris Y. & Zenetos A., 2015b. Alien biodiversity in Mediterranean marine caves. Marine Ecology 37 (2): 239–256.

Gerovasileiou V., Dimitriadis C., Arvanitidis C. & Voultsiadou E., 2017. Taxonomic and functional surrogates of sessile benthic diversity in Mediterranean marine caves. PlosS One, 12 (9): e0183707.

Ghirardelli E., 1970. Aspetti naturalistici delle ricerche in mare. Italian Journal of Zoology 37(4): 345–360.

Giaccone G., 1967. Popolamenti a Laminaria rodriguezii Bornet sul Banco Apollo dell’isola di Ustica (Mar Tirreno). Nova Thalassia 3(6): 1–9.

Giangrande A., Manconi R. & Pronzato R., 1986. A selective sampling method for the hard bottom vagile fauna. Rapports et proces-verbaux des reunion CIESM, 30(2): 265.

Gibson R., Atkinson R. & Gordon J., 2016. A review of underwater stereo–image measurement for marine biology and ecology applications. Oceanography and marine biology: an annual review 47: 257–292.

Gili J.-M., Riera T. & Zabala, M., 1986. Physical and biological gradients in a submarine cave on the Western Mediterranean coast (north–east Spain). Marine Biology 90(2): 291–297.

Gislen T., 1929-30. Epibioses of the Gullmar Fjord. 1. Geomorphology and hydrography. 2. Marine sociology (Kristinebergs Zoologiska Station 1877–1927), Skr. Ser. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 1929 (3): 1–123; 1930 (4): 1–380.

Godfried van Moorsel W.N.M. & Bennema F.P., 2015. Diving techniques in use by marine biologists before 1940 with emphasis on the Dutch contribution. Adhoc Newsletter Historie van de Oceanografie Club,12: 10–20.

Groeben C., 2002. The Stazione Zoologica, a clearing house for marine organisms. In: Benson K.R., Philip F. & Rehbock P.F. (Eds). Oceanographic History, The Pacific and Beyond. Seattle, WA, University of Washington Press.

Gudger E.W., 1918. On the use of the diving helmet for submarine biological work. American Museum Journal 18: 135–138.

Guidetti P., 2000. Differences among fish assemblages associated with nearshore Posidonia oceanica seagrass beds, rocky–algal reefs and unvegetated sand habitats in the Adriatic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 50: 515–529.

Guidetti P., 2002. The importance of experimental design in detecting the effects of protection measures on fish in Mediterranean MPAs. Aquatic Conservation Marine Freshwater Ecosystems 12: 619–634.

Haeckel E., 1876. Arabische Korallen. Ein Ausflug nach den Korallenbänken des Rothen Meeres und ein blick in das leben der Korallenthiere. Reimer, Berlin.

Hall-Spencer J.M., Rodolfo-Metalpa R., Martin S., Ransome E., Fine M. et al., 2008. Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification. Nature 454 (7200): 96–99.

Hamner W.M., 1975. Underwater observations of blue–water plankton, logistics, techniques, and safety procedures for divers at sea. Limnology and Oceanography 20: 1045–1051.

Hanauer E., 2003. Scientific diving at Scripps. Oceanography 16 (4): 88–92.

Harmelin J.-G., 1969. Bryozoaires des grottes sous–marines obscures de la région marseillaise. Faunistique et écologie. Tethys 1 (3): 793–806.

Harmelin J.-G., Vacelet J. & Vasseur P., 1985. Les grottes sous–marines obscures, un milieu extrême et un remarquable biotope refuge. Tethys 11 (3–4): 214–229.

Harmelin-Vivien M. & Harmelin J. G., 1975. Présentation d’une méthode d’évaluation in situ de la faune ichtyologique. Travaux scientifiques du Parc national de Port-Cros 1: 47–52.

Harmelin-Vivien M., Harmelin J.G., Chauvet C., Duval C., Galzin R., Lejeun P., Barnabé G., Blanc F., Chevalier R., Ducler J. & Lasserre G., 1985. Evaluation visuelle des peuplements et populations de poissons: méthodes et problêmes. Revue Ecologie (Terre Vie) 40: 467–539.

Harmelin-Vivien M.L. & Francour P., 1992. Trawling or visual censuses? Methodological bias in the assessment of fish populations in seagrass beds. P.S.Z.N.I., Marine Ecology 13(1): 41–51.

Hass H., 1949. Beitrag zur kenntnis der Reteporiden. Zoologica 37: 1–138.

Heberlein H., 1972. Historical Development of Diving and its Contribution to Marine Science and Research. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Section B, Biological Sciences 72 (1): 283–296.

Heidelberg K.B., O’Nei K.L., Bythell J.C. & Sebens K.P., 2010. Vertical distribution and diel patterns of zooplankton abundance and biomass at Conch Reef, Florida Keys (USA). Journal of Plankton Research 32 (1): 75–91.

Heine J.N., 2011. Scientific Diving Techniques. A pratical guide for the research diver. Best Publishing Company, Flagstaff, Arizona (USA), II Ed.

Helfman G.S., 1993. Fish behavior by day, night and twilight. In: Pitcher T.J. (Ed.). The behavior of teleost fishes. 2nd Ed. Chapman & Hall, London: 479–512.

Hernández–Delgado E.A., Mercado-Molina A.E., Suleimán–Ramos S.E., 2018. Multi-disciplinary lessons learned from low-tech coral farming and reef rehabilitation: I. Duque C. and Tello Camacho E. (Eds.) Best management practices. Proceedings of the Coral in Changing World. (InTech). 213–244.

Hestetun J.T., Vacelet J., Boury-Esnault N., Borchiellini C., Kelly M., Rìos P., Cristobo J. & Rapp H.T., 2016. The systematics of carnivorous sponges. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 94: 327–345.

High W.L. & Ellis I.E., 1973. Underwater observations of fish behavior in traps. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 24(1): 341–347.

Hill J. & Wilkinson C. 2004. Methods for ecological monitoring of coral reefs. In: NOAA diving manual, Diving for science and technology. Joiner, J.T., (Ed.). Best Publ. Co.

Hlebica J., 2000. The enduring Ama, Japan’s venerated breath–hold divers still play their trade. Historical Diver 8: 18–22.

Hobson E.S. & Chess J.R., 1976. Trophic interactions among fishes and zooplankters near shore at Santa Catalina Island, California. Fishery Bulletin 74(3): 567–598.

Hong S., Henderson J., Olszowka A., Hurford W.E., Falke K.J., Qvist J., Radermacher P., Shiraki K., Mohri M. & Takeuchi H., 1991. Daily diving pattern of Korean and Japanese breath-hold divers (Ama). Undersea Biomedical Research 18: 433–443.

Ilardo M.A., Moltke I., Korneliussen T.S., Cheng J., Stern A.J., Racimo F., de Barros Damgaard P., Sikora M., Seguin-Orlando A., Rasmussen S., van den Munckhof I.C.L., ter Horst R., Joosten L.A.B., Netea M.G., Salingkat S., Nielsen R. & Willerslev E., 2018. Physiological and genetic adaptations to diving in sea nomads. Cell 173(3): 569–580.

Iliffe T.M. & Kornicker L.S., 2009. Worldwide diving discoveries of living fossil animals from the depths of anchialine and marine caves. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences (38).

Iliffe T.M., 1992. Anchialine cave biology. The natural history of biospeleology: 614–636.

Ingrosso G., Abbiati M., Badalamenti F., Bavestrello G., Belmonte G. et al., 2018. Mediterranean bioconstructions along the Italian coast. Advances in Marine Biology 79 (3): 61–136.

Italian Association for Scientific Divers (Ed.), 2011. 3rd International Symposium on Occupational Scientific Diving. Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9–12 November 2011. 1–84.

Japp W.C., 1986. A photogrammetric apparatus for rapid areal benthic surveys. Diving for science. Proceedings of the 6th annual Scientific Diving Symposium: 227–231.

Jovanovic-Kruspel S., Pisani V. & Hantschk A., 2017. “Under water” – Between Science and Art. The rediscovery of the first authentic underwater sketches by Eugen von Ransonnet–Villez (1838–1926). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 119 (A): 131–153.

Kalafatas M.N., 2003. The bellstone, the Greek sponge divers of the Aegean. Brandeis University Press, Hanover, NH.

Katsanevakis S., Poursanidis D., Hoffman R., Rizgalla J., Rothman S.B.S., Levitt-Barmats Y.A. et al., 2020. Unpublished Mediterranean records of marine alien and cryptogenic species. BioInvasions Records 9 (2): 165–182.

Kipson S., Fourt M., Teixidó N., Cebrian E., Casas E., Ballesteros E., Zabala M. & Garrabou J., 2011. Rapid biodiversity assessment and monitoring method for highly diverse benthic communities, a case study of Mediterranean coralligenous outcrops. PlosS OOne 6 (11): e27103.

Kitching J.A., Machan T.T. & Gilson H.C., 1934. Studies in sublittoral ecology. I. A submarine gully in Wembury Bay, South Devon. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 19(2): 677–705.

Knowlton N. & Jackson J.B.C., 2001. The ecology of coral reefs. In: Bertness M.D., Gaines S.D. & Hay M.E. (Eds). Marine Community Ecology. Sinauer Ass: 395–422.

Koukouras A. Voultsiadou-Koukoura E., Chintiroglou H. & Dounas C., 1985. Benthic bionomy of north Aegean Sea. III. A comparison of the macrobenthic animal assemblages associated with seven sponge species. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 26: 301–319.

Koukouras A., Russo A., Voultsiadou‐Koukoura E., Arvanitidis C. & Stefanidou D., 1996. Macrofauna associated with sponge species of different morphology. Marine Ecology 17 (4), 569–582.

Koukouras A., Russo A., Voultsiadou‐Koukoura E., Dounas C., & Chintiroglou C., 1992. Relationship of sponge macrofauna with the morphology of their hosts in the North Aegean Sea. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie 77 (4): 609–619.

Laborel J. & Laborel-Deguen F., 1994. Biological indicators of relative sea–level variations and of co–seismic displacements in the Mediterranean region. Journal of Coastal Research 10 (2): 395–415.

Laborel J. & Vacelet J., 1958. Étude des peuplements d’une grotte sous–marine du Golfe de Marseille. Bulletin de l’Institut Océanographique 55 (1120): 1–20.

Laborel J., 1958. Contribution à l’etude directe des peuplements bentiques sciaphiles sur substrat rocheux en Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume 33 (20): 117–173.

Laborel J., 1961. Le concrétionnement algal “coralligène” et son importance géomorphologique en Méditerranée. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume 23: 37–60.

Lang M.A., Marinelli R.L., Roberts S.J. & Taylor P.R. (Eds), 2013. Research and discoveries, the revolution of science through Scuba. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences. Scolarly Press, Washington DC. 39.

Langlois T.J., Harvey E.S., Fitzpatrick B., Meeuwig J.J., Shedrawi G. & Watson D.L., 2010. Cost–efficient sampling of fish assemblages, comparison of baited video stations and diver video transects. Aquatic Biology 9 (2): 155–168.

Laubier L., 1966. Le coralligène des Albères, monographie biocénotique. Annales de l’Institut océanographique 43: 139–316.

Ledoyer M., 1968. Ecologie de la faune vagile des biotopes méditérranéens accesssible en scaphandre autonome (Région de Marseille principalement) IV. Synthèse de l’ètude écologique. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume 44 (60): 125–295.

Leonard G.H. & Clark R.P., 1993. Point quadrat versus video transect estimates of the cover of benthic red algae. Marine Ecology Progress Series: 203–208.

Leriche A., Pasqualini V., Boudouresque C.F., Bernard G., Bonhomme P., Clabaut P. & Denis J., 2006. Spatial, temporal and structural variations of a Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow facing human activities. Aquatic Botany 84 (4): 287–293.

Lesser M.P., Slattery M. & Leichter J.J., 2009. Ecology of mesophotic coral reefs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 375: 1–8.

Lirman D. & Schopmeyer S., 2016. Ecological solutions to reef degradation, optimizing coral reef restoration in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic. PeerJ 4: e2597.

Lobel P. & Lobel L., 2015. Milestones in underwater ichthyology, the first scientific divers in America. Proc. 34th Symp. Am. Academy Underwater Sciences: 65–77.

Longley W.H. & Hildebrandt S.F., 1941. Systematic catalogue of the fishes of Tortugas, Florida, with observations on color, habits and local distribution. Papers Tortugas Laboratory 34: 1–331.

Longobardi L., Bavestrello G., Betti F. & Cattaneo-Vietti R., 2017. Long–term changes in a Ligurian infralittoral community (Mediterranean Sea): a warning signal? Regional Studies in Marine Science 14: 15–26.

Loya Y., Puglise K.A & Bridge T.C. (Eds) 2018. Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems. 12. Springer. 1003 pp.

Luciano E. & Roero C.S., 2008. Numeri, atomi e alambicchi. Donne e scienza in Piemonte dal 1840 al 1960. Parte I. Centro Studi e Documentazione pensiero femminile.

Lucrezi S., Milanese M., Markantonatou V., Cerrano C., Sarà A., Palma M. & Saayman M., 2017. Scuba diving tourism systems and sustainability: perceptions by the scuba diving industry in two Marine Protected Areas. Tourism Management 59: 385–403.

Lucrezi S., Milanese M., Palma M. & Cerrano C., 2018. Stirring the strategic direction of scuba diving marine Citizen Science, a survey of active and potential participants. PlosS One 13 (8): e0202484.

Lundalv T.L., 1976. A stereophotographic method for quantitative studies on rocky bottom biocoenoses. In: Drew E.A., Lythgoe J.N. & Woods J.D. (Eds). Underwater research. Academic Press London: 299–302.

Luther W. & Fiedler K., 1961. Die Unterwasserfauna der Mittelmeerküsten, ein Taschenbuch für Biologen und Naturfreunde. Verlag Paul Parey: 1–250.

Lyle L., 1929. Marine algae of some German warships in Scapa Flow and of the neighbouring shores. Journal Linnean Society (Botany) 48: 231–257.

Machan R. & Fedra K., 1975. A new towed underwater camera system for wide–ranging benthic surveys. Marine Biology 33: 75–84.

Madin L.P., Hamner W.M., Haddock S.H.D. & Matsumoto G.I., 2013. Scuba Diving in Blue Water, a Window on Ecology and Evolution in the Epipelagic Ocean. In: Lang M.A., Marinelli R.L., Roberts S.J. & Taylor P.R. (Eds). Research and discoveries, the revolution of science through Scuba. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 39: 71–82.

Maraini F., 1960. L’Isola delle Pescatrici. Leonardo da Vinci Ed., Bari.

Marba N., Díaz-Almela E. & Duarte C.M., 2014. Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) loss between 1842 and 2009. Biological Conservation 176: 183–190.

Marcante D. & Muccioli M.T., 1986. Storia delle attività sportive subacquee. Editoriale Olimpia.

Marchetti R., 1965a. Ricerche sul corallo rosso della costa ligure e toscana. Distribuzione geografica. Rendiconti Istituto Lombardo Scienze Lettere B (99): 255–278.

Marchetti R., 1965b. Ricerche sul corallo rosso della costa ligure e toscana. II. Il Promontorio di Portofino. Rendiconti Istituto Lombardo Scienze Lettere, B (99): 279–316.

Mare M.F., 1942. A study of a marine benthic community with special reference to the micro–organisms. Journal Marine Biological Association of United Kingdom 25: 517–554.

Marre G., Holon F., Luque S., Boissery P. & Deter J., 2019. Monitoring marine habitats with photogrammetry: a cost-effective, accurate, precise and high-resolution reconstruction method. Frontiers in Marine Science 6: 276.

Martínez A., 2014. A souvenir of undersea landscapes, underwater photography and the limits of photographic visibility, 1890–1910. História, Ciências, Saúde. Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, 21 (3).

Marx R.F., 1990. The history of underwater exploration. Courier Corporation Publ.

McRoy C.P. & McMillan C., 1977. Production ecology and physiology of seagrasses. In: McRoy C.P., Helfferich C. & Dekker M. (Eds). Seagrasses ecosystem, a scientific perspective. New York, 2: 55–88.

Meinesz A., 2007. Methods for identifying and tracking seaweed invasions. Botanica Marina 50: 379–384.

Meinesz A., Caye G., Loques F. & Molenaar H., 1991. Restoration of damaged areas with transplantation of seaweeds and seagrasses in the Mediterranean, reviews and perspectives, Oebalia 17: 131–142.

Meinesz A., Caye G., Loques F. & Molenaar H., 1993. Polymorphism and development of Posidonia oceanica transplanted from different parts of the Mediterranean into the National Park of Port-Cros. Botanica Marina 36: 209–216.

Melegari G.E., 1973. Portofino Sub. Guida alla conoscenza dei fondali del Promontorio di Portofino. E.R.G.A Publ., Genoa.

Milne–Edwards H., 1845. Recherches zoologiques faite pendant un voyage sur les côtes de la Sicile. Annales des sciences naturelles, Zoologie (3éme Sér.) 1: 129–182.

Miner R.W., 1934. Diving in coral gardens. Scientific American 151 (3): 122–124.

Miner R.W., 1950. Field book of seashore life. Putnam Publ.

Ministero dell’Agricoltura e delle Foreste, 1931. La pesca nei mari e nelle acque interne d’Italia. vol. 3. Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, Rome. 10.

Miraglia L., 1935. Nuovo sistema di osservazione e di caccia subacquea. Bollettino ufficiale del Laboratorio di Idrobiologia applicata alla pesca. Ministero dell’Agricoltura e Foreste, Roma: 255–316.

Mojetta A., 2019. Henry Milne–Edwards e l’esplorazione sottomarina. HDS Notizie 14 (67): 21–27.

Mojetta A., Ghisotti A., Cau A., Donnini P. & Antinori C., 1994. Flora e fauna del Mediterraneo. A. Mondadori Publ.

Molinier R., 1952. Recherches sur le herbiers de phanérogames marines du littoral méditerranéen français. Annales de l’Institut océanographique, Paris, 17(3).

Molinier R., 1955. Deux nouvelles formations organogènes biologiques construites en Méditerranée occidentale. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris 240: 2–166.

Montefalcone M., 2009. Ecosystem health assessment using the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica: a review. Ecological Indicators 9(4): 595–604.

Montefalcone M., De Falco G., Nepote E., Canessa M., Bertolino M., Bavestrello G., Morri C. & Bianchi C.N., 2018a. Thirty-year ecosystem trajectories in a submerged marine cave under changing pressure regime. Marine Environmental Research 137: 98–110.

Montefalcone M., Morri C. & Bianchi C.N., 2018b. Long–term change in bioconstruction potential of Maldivian coral reefs following extreme climate anomalies. Global Change Biology 24(12): 5629–5641.

Morri C., Cinelli F. & Bianchi C.N., 1994. Sessile epifauna gigantism in a submarine cave with sulphur springs. Cave Diving 6: 4–9.

Mumby P.J. & Harborne A.R., 1999. Development of a systematic classification scheme of marine habitats to facilitate regional management and mapping of Caribbean coral reefs. Biological Conservation, 88: 155–163.

Murray J. & Hjort J., 1912. The Depths of the Ocean. Macmillan & Co., London.

Musengo G., 1913. Rapporto ufficiale della Regia Marina Militare. Rivista Marittima. Rome.

Neushul M., 1965. Diving observation of sub–tidal Antarctic marine vegetation. Botanica Marina 8: 234–243.

Olmstead K., 2008. Jacques Cousteau, a life under the sea. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.

Olschki A., 2007. L’epopea subacquea fiorentina. Storia del Gruppo Ricerche Scientifiche e Tecniche Subacquee. HDS Notizie 39–40: 1–22.

Ott J.A. & Svoboda A., 1976. Sea caves as model systems for energy flow studies in primary hard bottom communities. Pubblicazioni Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 40: 477–485.

Ott J.A., 1973. Concepts of underwater experimentation. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 24: 54–77.

Padiglia A., Ledda F.D., Padedda B.M., Pronzato R. & Manconi R., 2018. Long–term experimental in situ farming of Crambe crambe (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida). PeerJ 6.

Paine R.T. & Vadas R.L., 1969. The effects of grazing by sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus spp., on benthic algal populations 1. Limnology and Oceanography 14(5): 710–719.

Paine R.T., 1966. Food web complexity and species diversity. American Naturalist 100: 65–74.

Paling E.I., Fonseca M., van Katwijk M.M. & van Keulen M., 2009. Seagrass restoration. In: Perillo G.M.E., Wolanski E., Cahoon D.R. &, Brinson M.M. (Eds), Coastal Wetlands: an Ecosystem Integrated Approach, 24. Elsevier: 687–713.

Pansini M. & Pronzato, R., 1990. Observations on the dynamics of a Mediterranean Sponge Community. In: Rützler K., Macintyre V.V. & Smith K. (Eds). Perspectives in Sponge Biology. Third International Conference on the Biology of Sponges. New Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C: 404–415.

Pansini M., 1983. Quelques utilisations de la photographie sous–marine dans l’ètude des spongiaires. Rapports et proces–verbaux des reunion CIESM 28(8): 163.

Parenzan P., 1958. Il mistero della “Zinzulusa” svelato. Studia Spaelaeologica 3: 20–22.

Parravicini V., Ciribilli G., Morri C., Montefalcone M., Albertelli G. & Bianchi C.N., 2009. Size matters more than method: visual quadrats vs photography in measuring the impact of date mussel collection on Mediterranean rocky reef communities. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 81: 359–367.

Pastorino E. & Canu S., 1965. Osservazioni intorno alla fauna marina bentonica di Camogli e dintorni (Riviera Ligure di Levante). Doriana, Museo Storia Naturale Genova 4(159): 19.

Peckman V., 1964. Year–round scuba diving in Antarctica. Polar Record 12(77): 143–146.

Pèrés J.-M. & Picard, J., 1949. Notes sommaires sur le peuplement des grottes sous–marines de la région de Marseille. Comptes Rendus Sommaire Séances de la Société Biogéographique 227: 42–45.

Phillips R.C., 1974. Trasplantations of seagrasses with special emphasis on eelgrass, Zostera marina. Aquaculture 4: 161–176.

Pinnegar J.K., Polunin N.V.C., Francour P., Badalamenti F., Chemello R., Harmelin-Vivien M.L., Hereu B., Milazzo M., Zabala M., D’Anna G. & Pipitone C., 2000. Trophic cascades in benthic marine ecosystems: lessons for fisheries and protected–area management. Environmental Conservation 27(2): 179–200.

Pomeroy R.S., Parks J.E. & Balboa C.M., 2006. Farming the reef, is aquaculture a solution for reducing fishing pressure on coral reefs? Marine Policy 30(2): 111–130.

Potts G.W., 2009. A diver-controlled plankton net. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 56 (4): 959–962.

Pronzato R. & Manconi R., 2008. Mediterranean commercial sponges, over 5000 years of natural history and cultural heritage. Marine Ecology 29(2): 146–166.

Pronzato R., 1997. Underwater photographic techniques for field–research in shallow marine environments. In: Jensen A.C. (Ed.). European Artificial Reef Research. Publ. Southampton Oceanography Centre: 337–346.

Pronzato R., 1999. Sponge‐fishing, disease and farming in the Mediterranean Sea. Aquatic Conservation, Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 9(5): 485–493.

Pruvot-Fol A., 1954. Mollusques Opisthobranches. Faune de France. P. Lechevalier Paris 58: 1–460.

Quick D., 1970. A history of closed circuit oxygen underwater breathing apparatus. Royal Australian Navy, School of Underwater Medicine.

Rajagopalan R., 2017. A cultural heritage - women divers of Jeju Island. Yemaya 53: 5.

Rambelli F. (Ed.), 2008. Immersioni, Storie, tecniche, esplorazioni riemerse dal mare del passato. La Mandragora Editrice.

Rambelli F., 2006. Subacquea, gocce di storia. La Mandragora Editrice.

Rastorgueff P.A., Bellan-Santini D., Bianchi C.N., Bussotti S., Chevaldonné P., Guidetti P., Harmelin J.-G., Montefalcone M., Morri C., Pérez T., Ruitton S., Vacelet J. & Personnic S., 2015. An ecosystem-based approach to evaluate the ecological quality of Mediterranean undersea caves. Ecological Indicators 54: 137–152.

Riedl R., 1963. Fauna und Flora der Adria. Paul Parey, Hamburg and Berlin.

Riedl R., 1966. Biologie der Meereshöhlen. Paul Parey, Hamburg and Berlin.

Riedl R., 1978. The role of sea cave investigation in marine sciences. Pubblicazioni Stazione Zoologica Napoli 40: 492–501.

Riedl R., 1980. Marine Ecology – A century of changes. P.S.Z.N.I., Marine Ecology 1: 3–46.

Rinaldi A., 2017. Atlante della fauna e flora marina dell’Adriatico nord–occidentale. La Mandragora Editrice, Imola.

Rinkevich B., 2005. Conservation of coral reefs through active restoration measures, recent approaches and last decade progress. Environmental Science & Technology 39(12): 4333–4342.

Roghi G., 1955. Uomini e pesci. Sperling & Kupfer, Milan. 1–232.

Ros J.-D., Olivella I. & Gili J.-M. (Eds), 1984. Els sistemes naturals de les illes Medes. Institut d’Estudis Catalans, Barcelona.

Ros J.-D., Romero J., Ballesteros E. & Gili J.–M., 1985. Diving in blue water. The benthos. In: R. Margalef (Ed), Western Mediterranean: 233–295.

Rossi L., 1959. Le specie di Eunicella (Gorgonaria) del Golfo di Genova. Annali Museo Storia Naturale di Genova 118: 203–225.

Rousseau P., 2004. Maurice Fernez. Dallo scafandro da palombaro al sommozzatore con narghilè e con autorespiratore. HDS Notizie 32: 21–26.

Russ K. & Rützler K., 1959. Zur Kenntnis der Schwammfauna unterseeischer Hőhlen. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 30 (suppl.): 756–787.

Rützler K., 1996. Sponge diving - Professional but not for profit. In: Lang M.A., Baldwin C.C. (Eds). Methods and Techniques of Underwater Research. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences, 16th Annual Scientific Diving Symposium. Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC.

Sala E., Boudouresque C.F. & Harmelin–Vivien M., 1998. Fishing, trophic cascades, and the structure of algal assemblages: evaluation of an old but untested paradigm. Oikos 82(3): 425–439.

Sala E., Garrabou J. & Zabala M., 1996. Effects of diver frequentation on Mediterranean sublittoral populations of the bryozoan Pentapora fascialis. Marine Biology 126: 451–459.

Santarelli B., Senes L., Pronzato R., Cerrano C., Cicogna F., Cattaneo–Vietti R. & Bavestrello G., 1999. Diel activity cycles of Corallium rubrum polyps. In: Cicogna F., Bavestrello G. & Cattaneo–Vietti R. (Eds). Red coral and other Mediterranean Octocorals, biology and protection. Ministero delle Politiche Agricole, Rome: 99–113.

Sarà M., 1958. Studio sui Poriferi di una grotta di marea del Golfo di Napoli. Archivio Zoologico Italiano 43: 203–280.

Sarà M., 1964. Distribuzione ed ecologia dei Poriferi in acque superficiali della Riviera ligure di Levante. Archivio Zoologico Italiano 49: 181–248.

Sarà M., 1970. Competition and cooperation in sponge population. Symposium Zoological Society, London 25: 273–284.

Sayer M., 2007. Scientific diving, a bibliographic analysis of underwater research supported by SCUBA diving, 1995–2006. International Journal of the Society for Underwater Technology 27(3): 75–94.

Servello G., Andaloro F., Azzurro E., Castriota L., Catra M. Chiarore A., Crocetta F., D’Alessandro M., Denitto F., Froglia C. & Gravili C., 2019. Marine alien species in Italy, a contribution to the implementation of descriptor D2 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Mediterranean Marine Science 20(1): 1–48.

Shepard A.N., Dinsmore D.A., Miller S.L., Cooper C.B. & Wicklund R.I., 1996. Aquarius undersea laboratory, The next generation. In: Lang M.A. & Baldwin C.C. (Eds). Methods and Techniques of Underwater Research. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences. 16th Annual Scientific Diving Symposium. Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC.

Siddon C.E. & Witman J.D., 2004. Behavioral indirect interactions, multiple predator effects and prey switching in the rocky subtidal. Ecology 85(11): 2938–2945.

Stephens L.D. & Calder D.R., 2006. Seafaring scientist. Alfred Goldsborough Mayor, pioneer in marine biology. University of South Carolina Press.

Susini M.L., Mangialajo L., Thibaut T. & Meinesz A., 2007. Development of a transplantation technique of Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta and Cystoseira compressa. Hydrobiologia 580: 241–244.

Svane I. & Gröndahl F., 1988. Epibioses of Gullmarsfjorden: An underwater stereophotographical transect analysis in comparison with the investigations of Gislén in 1926–29. Ophelia 28(2): 95–110.

Teixidó N., Albajes–Eizagirre A., Bolbo D., Le Hir E., Demestre M., Garrabou J., Guigues L., Gili J.M., Piera J., Prelot T. & Soria-Frisch A., 2011. Hierarchical segmentation–based software for cover classification analyses of seabed images (Seascape). Marine Ecology Progress Series 431: 45–53.

Tescione G., 1973. The Italians and Their Coral Fishing. Fausto Fiorentino Publ., Naples.

Tiralongo F., Lillo A.O., Tibullo D., Tondo E., Lo Martire C., D’Agnese R., Macali A., Mancini E., Giovos I., Coco S. & Azzurro E., 2019. Monitoring uncommon and non–indigenous fishes in Italian waters. One year of results for the AlienFish project. Regional Studies in Marine Science 28: 100606.

Tortonese E., 1958. Bionomia marina della regione costiera fra Punta della Chiappa e Portofino. Archivio di Oceanografia e Limnologia 11: 167–210.

Tortonese E., 1961. Nuovo contributo alla conoscenza del benthos della scogliera ligure. Archivio di Oceanografia e Limnologia 12: 164–183.

Trainito E., 2005. Atlante di flora & fauna del Mediterraneo - Guida all’ambiente sommerso. Casa Editrice Il Castello, Turin.

Vacelet J. & Boury-Esnault N., 1995. Carnivorous sponges. Nature 373: 333–335.

Vacelet J. & Levi C., 1958. Un case de survivance, en Mediterranee, du groupe d’eponge fossiles des Pharetronidae. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences, Paris 246: 318–320.

Vacelet J., 1964. Etude monographique de l’Eponge calcaire Pharétronide de Méditerranée, Petrobiona massiliana Vacelet & Lévi. Les Pharétronides actuelles et fossiles. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume 50 (34): 3–131.

Vacelet J., 2007. Diversity and evolution of deep–sea carnivorous sponges. Porifera Research, Biodiversity, innovation and sustainability. Série Livros 28: 107–115.

Vacelet J., Boury-Esnault N. & Harmelin J.-G., 1994. Hexactinellid cave, a unique deep–sea habitat in the scuba zone. Deep–Sea Research 41: 965–973.

Voultsiadou E., Dailianis T., Antoniadou C., Vafidis D., Dounas C. & Chintiroglou C.C., 2011. Aegean bath sponges: historical data and current status. Reviews in Fisheries Science 19 (1): 34–51.

Weigel W., 1969. Aquarianer Fangen Meerestiere. Franckh’sche, Stuttgart.

Weinberg S., 1978. The minimal area problem in invertebrate communities of Mediterranean rocky substrata. Marine Biology 49 (1): 33–40.

Weinberg S., Dogué P.L.J. & Neuschwander J., 1993. 100 ans de Photographie sous–marine. A. Schrotter Ed., Saint–Chèron.

Willis T.J., 2001. Visual census methods underestimate density and diversity of cryptic reef fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 59 (5): 1408–1411.

Windler A., 2019. The use of Spondylus gaederopus during the Neolithic of Europe. Journal of Open Archaeology Data 7: 1–7.

Witman J.D., Dayton P.K., Suzanne N., Steneck R.S. & Birkeland C., 2013. Scuba Revolutionizes Marine Science. In: Lang M.A., Marinelli R.L., Roberts S.J. et al. (Eds). Research and Discoveries, The Revolution of Science through Scuba. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington, DC: 3–11.

Wulff J.L. & Buss L.W., 1979. Do sponges help hold coral reefs together? Nature 281 (5731): 474–475.

Yonge C.M., 1930. A Year on the Great Barrier Reef. The story of corals & of the greatest of their creation. Putnam Publ.

Yonge C.M., 1949. The Sea Shore. Collins Ed., London.

Zabala M., Riera T., Gili J.–M., Barange M., Lobo A. & Peñuelas J., 1989. Water flow, trophic depletion, and benthic macrofauna impoverishment in a submarine cave from the Western Mediterranean. Marine Ecology 10 (3): 271–287.

Zibrowius H., 1968. Étude morphologique, systématique et écologique des Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) de la région de Marseille (provenant essentiellement des grottes sous–marines). Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume 59 (43): 81–252.

##submission.downloads##

Pubblicato

2021-01-05