Toxic masculinity and international protection


  • Luigi Pannarale University of Bari, Italy
  • Leoluca Armigero University of Bari, Italy



This article critically analyses the relationship between toxic masculinity, both in refugees and local authorities’ imaginary, as a way to behave in order to look or not to look like a gay man. Even the policy makers seem to solve the problem of a sexual orientation objectivity by watching how far is an individual experience from the strictly-binary gender expectations and performativity that societies have chosen for that person. Refugees have to play a lifetime long role not to let people around them down: their bodies and habits are forced into stereotypes; the lack of representation will not help them find a liberation through the world. The comparison between two different cultures will reveal it is just one culture, facing herself after decades.

Keywords: toxic masculinity, international protection, gender stereotypes.


2021-12-12 — Updated on 2021-12-17